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Below are the 11 most recent journal entries recorded in traforoupic's InsaneJournal:

    Monday, March 25th, 2013
    8:57 pm
    Budget impasse means less paid overtime for some feds
    U.S. google sniper review Pakistani officials Wednesday offered dueling accounts of the events penny stock egghead review up to the arrest of an American who fatally shot two men in Lahore last month and whose continued detention is at the center of an increasingly tense diplomatic standoff between the two countries. When the Facebook boss spoke out about the

    challenges faced by women in business, she was told it would end her career. Then she wrote a book, Lean In, advising women how to succeed, and was savaged by feminists.
    But she is undauntedIt took Sheryl Sandberg a long time – "too long" – to realise she was a feminist, and even longer to say it out loud.
    As chief operating officer of Facebook, she is among the most high-profile executives in the world, the more so for being female.
    Most of those in her position, she says, barely admit to being women, let alone feminists, so her decision to publish Lean In, a book of feminist advice for women in the workplace, constitutes a radical departure. "I wish I had done more earlier," she says. "I wasn't brave enough."We are in a windowless room in Facebook's Palo Alto HQ, where Sandberg is drinking from a huge Starbucks cup (she used to be on the board at Starbucks) and exuding that slightly gimlet-eyed cheerfulness one associates with corporate advancement. The furore surrounding Lean In has been ferocious and not all of it to do with the book.
    Sandberg, reported to be worth around $400 million, annoys a great many people. Quite apart from the money, she works for a company with an intractable sense of its own "transgressiveness", a self-image that sits awkwardly alongside the wealth of its founders and the sometimes moony-eyed devotion of its staff. She talks in the kind of inspirational business-speak that makes activists sneer and recoil.
    And one gets the sense she has jumped into a decades-old debate with an innocence – of how factional it is; how

    influenced by other political assumptions – approaching naivety.What she is not, for the most part, is wrong. The main

    criticism of Lean In has been that Sandberg "blames" women for not getting ahead, which

    she categorically doesn't do.
    Instead, she identifies behaviours exhibited by women

    in the workplace – an unwillingness to ask for more money; a tendency, in meetings, to hold back; a

    conservatism in estimating their self-worth – as the warping effect of historical and ongoing gender bias. Guys in her office go for promotion when they have a fraction of the necessary skills, she notes; women, by and large, wait until they have 100%. And wait to be asked, or rather, cajoled into applying."I give a lot of negotiating advice, which has the principal property of saying, understand the biases against women and use that to your advantage in negotiation.
    You can't negotiate exactly like a man, it won't

    Take the things you know. There's an inherent contradiction in writing a book which

    has the goal of getting rid of gender stereotypes and telling people to acknowledge and

    use the gender stereotypes. I see that.
    I try to acknowledge that in the book. I'm a pragmatist.
    I want this to get better. I want women to get paid

    more. I want to teach them to negotiate so they get paid more."It is odd that someone as determinedly uncontroversial as Sandberg should have written a book like this, which is also the reason for Lean In's significance. What Sandberg is saying is valuable precisely because it is

    her – speaking

    in the language of corporate conservatism – and not Barbara Ehrenreich saying it.The book grew out of a TED talk the 43-year-old gave about women at work in 2010, which generated a huge response, positive and negative – although the negative was mainly from male executives warning her not to make an issue of gender, rather than, as now, other feminists deriding her credentials. Among the most savage of the recent reviews, Allison Pearson in the Telegraph points out Sandberg's failure to address "the fastest-growing trend among professional women … involuntary childlessness."
    In the Guardian, Zoe Williams

    calls the book spineless and "infantilising".
    Maureen Dowd, in the New York Times, writes that Sandberg "doesn't understand the difference between a social movement and a social network marketing campaign".
    The reaction seems to be

    that it means well, but is in effect empty marketing.All underestimate how reactionary


    crowd she's addressing is; this is not

    a book aimed at the well-versed in feminist polemics. It's for those operating in a commercial realm so unevolved that

    the book,

    far from being meek and obvious, is strident to the point of hysterical.Before she gave her TED talk, the message from Sandberg's male peers was clear: "It would be the official end of my career. Once I gave a talk on women, I would be a 'woman executive'. You can't possibly care about women's issues and be a serious business person."Sandberg
    thought it over, and came

    to the conclusion that, in fact, the only way to talk about it was as a business issue: that companies were losing valuable talent because of their problem with women, and mothers in particular.
    "The tipping point for me," she says, "was watching men and women I managed over the last 15 years. No matter what I did, the men started to get ahead of the women.
    At every step, their foot was on the gas pedal and they were leaning in and women were leaning back."
    Of Yale alumni who had reached their 40s in 2000, she says, only 56% of the women remained in the workforce, compared to 90% of the men.Sandberg
    herself has been known to lean back, and admits to a bad decision she made in her 20s. After graduating from Harvard – her senior thesis was on the economic impact of domestic violence – Larry Summers, her thesis adviser, encouraged her to apply for international fellowships.
    But while she would love to have gone to Europe, she writes, she rejected the idea "on the grounds that a foreign country was not a likely place to turn a date into a husband. Instead, I moved to Washington DC, which was full of eligible men."Wow. "Yeah. I know. Pretty shocking. And you know," Sandberg smiles, "that didn't work out so well." (She married at 24 and divorced a year later. She is now married to David Goldberg and they have two children).Sandberg worked for Summers as his chief of staff at the US treasury for


    years, then when Bush was elected and they were all out of jobs, she moved to Silicon Valley. It wasn't an obvious time to board that train. "People thought I was nuts.
    It was 2001, so

    the bubble had crashed and no one was hiring." It took her a year to find the right job,

    "and, yeah, I got a little nervous". Things began to look up, and when Eric Schmidt hired her at Google, he persuaded her to take the job by asking her to consider which of the companies trying to hire her had the greatest potential for growth.
    She took the risk and joined Google.It
    was during her negotiations with Facebook that Sandberg suffered a bout

    of timidity; she was reluctant to ask for more money. And for good reason – the remuneration package, she says, struck her as fair.
    More than that: "I thought it was a terrific offer! Perfectly great!" (One can only imagine.) She also wanted the job.

    was only when her brother-in-law and husband pointed out that no man in her position

    would accept the first offer that she went back to the table, and told Mark Zuckerberg that, since he was hiring her in part for her negotiating skills, it would be a bad advertisement if she didn't use them.
    She came out of the meeting with equity in Facebook.So, if she hadn't negotiated, she wouldn't be worth anything like the amount she now is? "I don't remember exactly the back and forth, but yeah. I would be in a different place. I'd still have been very well off – no one should feel sad for me." I assure her they don't."But what's interesting," she says, "was that when my brother-in-law and my husband were saying 'negotiate, negotiate, negotiate' – when I finally said OK I'll do it, because no man would take the

    first offer, I then

    thought to myself, I felt like I needed a justification for doing it.
    And it turns out that's what the data says: men can negotiate without apology or justification.
    It's expected. If women negotiate,

    they need to justify it.
    It can't be that you want more

    for you. Because that's what men get to do." As she writes in the book, "success and likability are positively correlated for men and negatively correlated for women."This brings us to the Facebook board, which until Sandberg joined, four years into her tenure, didn't have a woman on it. Facebook is a liberal company in the conventional tech style: staff can pick up

    bikes and deposit them anywhere on site; all the food – burrito bar, smoothie stand – is free, except for the sushi restaurant. In the main atrium, there is a "graffiti wall", where staff can express themselves in felt tip with earnest peons to the company. In the courtyard, there are "fire pits" to hold meetings around that could have come from the mind of Armando Iannucci. Even the doors are in theme, made to look like garage doors as a tribute to the company's origins.Above
    all, no one has an office, not even Sandberg or Zuckerberg, so that, as she says, traditional power structures are undermined. And yet until recently, Zuckerberg was defending the all-male board as a function of the company's meritocracy. "We have a very small board," he told the New Yorker. "I'm going to find people who are helpful, and I don't particularly care what gender they are or what company they are. I'm not filling the board with check-boxes."According
    to Sandberg's reasoning – that informal mentoring within offices promotes men over women, so they are in place for the top jobs – Zuckerberg's response just isn't adequate, is it?"I mean, I, I, I don't know exactly the answer to that question. I don't think he ever meant it the way you're taking it now." But has his position changed? Did he (to use the kind of language favoured here) go on the journey with her?"Look, I think I'm growing and learning.
    I'm in a different place on these issues than I was five years ago.
    When I joined this company, I'd never given a really public talk on being a woman.
    And so I'm growing and changing and I think he is along with me.
    But it would be a mistake to say I'm leading and bullying him along.
    I mean, I think it goes more the other way. He's leading. Mark's fearless.
    Mark has a big vision of how the world could be different

    and he puts himself out there to make it different, and he has encouraged me every step of the way. I mean, Mark read the book and said, 'I want to

    talk about the plans for the book, 'cos I'm certain they're not big enough! This is important, Sheryl! Do more!' This is not me leading Mark. This is Mark pushing everyone around him, including me, to be bold. I'm grateful for that."It's
    true that Facebook always had generous maternity and paternity provisions.
    Sandberg caused a stir when she admitted leaving the office at 5.30pm, so she could see her children for dinner.
    (She starts work again after they go to bed) A week after I see Sandberg, Marissa Mayer, CEO at Yahoo who famously returned to work two weeks after having a baby and who the word "feminist" seems to bring out in hives, banned all Yahoo staff from working at home.
    It was seen as a regressive move, but Sandberg won't say much beyond, "I make it clear in the book that not all the advice is applicable in every situation."

    (Early at Facebook, when Sandberg asked Zuckerberg how she was doing,

    he said that my "desire to be liked by everyone would hold me back".)When it doesn't involve criticising someone else, she can be expansive on the subject of work/life merge, as it's now called. "People ask: does Facebook have flex-time? I'm like, if we had flex-time, everyone would feel chained to their desk. We have no time. I mean there are people who work here who

    I didn't meet for years because they never came. No one had ever met them. They worked here

    and were great and delivered great products.
    We have amazing amounts of flexibility and that's because we don't have a traditional power structure."Does
    Facebook have a daycare centre? "We're not zoned for daycare." (One forgets: daycare is irrelevant when you can afford nannies. "And people have done very well here financially, so they can afford the help they need.")There
    will be those who find this too obnoxious to bear; the superwealthy telling the rest of us how to get along better. But given the dearth of women

    CEOs, it seems absurd to criticise Sandberg on the grounds

    that her advice doesn't translate to the lower end of the scale.
    She is talking about getting into the boardroom. But I wonder if Lean In: Women, Work and the Will to Lead is in part a response to her guilt about having made so much money; the need to do something in the public interest."Oh,
    absolutely. I mean, I'm funding myself.
    Personally. For now.
    And if it gets really successful, I won't be able to and that would be awesome! Because I want to

    use some of the resources I have to help other women."She has found a mentor in Gloria Steinem, who read the book and offered suggestions, and whom Sandberg was probably surprised didn't act as a surer passport

    to approval from other feminists. "I feel very close to her and

    I feel very lucky. She changed my life. She read every word of that book; she called me with comments, she sent line edits. I saved them all.
    And I think she thinks that all of the things I'm doing, and that everyone is doing – she just wants to see action … and people taking this seriously and every individual treated as they should be."To
    accompany the book, she is inviting women to join "Lean In

    circles", a kind of group life coaching with worksheets. In Sandberg's own home, her daughter's early management skills are banned from being described, by her son, as "bossy". In the office, she is encouraging men to seek out

    female mentees and understand what happens when discreet networks fall along gender lines.
    She has even inspired her mother. "She's turning

    70 in a year and a half, and she's going to get bat mitzvahed.
    Because when she was growing up, her brothers got to and she didn't."
    There are worse uses

    for this kind of sales acumen.
    Sandberg smiles. "And I think that is her leaning in."Sheryl SandbergFacebookFeminismInternetSocial networkingEqualityGenderPayWork & careersFamily financesWomenEmployabilityHigher educationEmma
    © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.
    All rights reserved. | Use of this content

    is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More FeedsNEW YORK -- Citigroup Inc.,

    one of the worst-hit banks during the financial crisis, is taking more steps to get back in the good graces of shareholders. With spring football beginning on campuses around the country this month, six 30-something coaches are getting their first crack

    at running a program.
    That doesn't include Willie Taggart — he'll be 37 when South Florida kicks off next fall and it will be head coaching job No. 2 for him. President Obama has invited a group of Senate Republicans to dinner on Wednesday, a guest confirms, continuing a charm offensive aimed at striking a deal with rank-and-file lawmakers instead of GOP leadership.
    Read full article >> Tableware modeled after a variety of fruit and vegetables. Before attacks, civilians and rebels were frustrated by international community's lack of action.
    Finding time to sit down and eat a meal can be

    challenging. But snacking is a different
    8:55 pm
    Art Review: ‘Street,’ at the Metropolitan Museum
    Mix google sniper review a couple of big oil refiners, penny stock egghead review arch-conservative oil tycoon, "green tech" venture capitalists, a former secretary of state

    and California's far-reaching climate legislation, and stir. Montie, the main cat understudy for “Breakfast at

    Tiffany’s,” will be replaced by Moo.I
    first noticed it in narrow

    mobile viewports when testing changing the orientation from landscape to portrait in the iOS Simulator, which made me think that it happened only in iOS WebKit.
    However when I made a minimal test case to try to isolate the problem it turned out that

    it happens in WebKit-based desktop browsers like Safari, Chrome, and iCab as well.
    I haven’t been able to reproduce it in any other browsers though.
    Former Orioles shortstop Miguel Tejada pleads guilty to federal charges that he lied to congressional investigators about the use of performance-enhancing drugs in baseball. "Walk two miles and call me in the morning."
    In investing, you can't make a lot of money betting on what everyone already knows. Favorites don't pay off big. The work holds little promise of resolving

    the federal debt or partisan divide, but it will look more like regular business and less like a crisis. During a visit to Israel, President Obama will confront a public still smarting from perceived slights in years
    8:53 pm
    Lunchtime Lobster
    A federal judge google sniper review Florida on penny stock egghead review became the first to strike down the entire law to overhaul the nation's health-care system, potentially complicating implementation of the statute in the 26 states that brought the suit.
    MEXICO CITY -- President Felipe Calderón on Monday vigorously condemned a tough new immigration law in Arizona that requires police to question anyone who appears to be in the country illegally -- a measure Calderón said "opens the door to intolerance and hatred."From Casablanca to The Killing – the elements of a great script are

    essentially the same. John Yorke – who is responsible for some of the most popular recent British TV dramas – reveals how and why the best screenwriting worksOnce upon a time, in such and such a place, something happened." In

    basic terms that's about it – the very best definition of a story. What an archetypal story does is introduce you to a central character – the protagonist – and invite you to identify with them; effectively they become your avatar in the drama.
    So you have a central character, you empathise with them,

    and something then happens to them, and that something

    is the genesis of the story.
    Jack discovers a beanstalk; Bond learns Blofeld plans to take over the world.
    The "something" is almost always a problem, sometimes a problem disguised as an opportunity.
    It's usually something that throws your protagonist's world out of kilter – an explosion in the normal steady pace of their lives: Alice falls down a rabbit hole; spooks learn of a radical terrorist plot; Godot doesn't turn up.Your
    character has a problem that he or she must solve: Alice has to get back to the real world; our spooks have to stop a bomb going off in central London; Vladimir and Estragon have to wait. The story is the journey they go on to sort out the problem presented. On the way they may learn something new about themselves; they'll certainly be faced with a series of obstacles to overcome; there will be a

    moment near the end where all hope seems lost, and this will almost certainly be followed by a last-minute resurrection of hope, a final battle against the odds, and victory snatched from the jaws of defeat.You'll see this shape (or its tragic counterpart) working at some level in every story.
    It might be

    big and pronounced, as in Alien or Jaws, it might be subtler, as in Ordinary People, or it might represent a reaction against it (Jean-Luc Godard's Weekend) – but it will be there.
    It reveals itself most clearly in the framework of the classic crime or hospital drama.
    A murder

    is committed or someone gets sick; the detective or doctor must find the killer or make their patient well.
    That's why detective fiction is so popular; the unifying factors that appear at some level in all stories are at their most accessible here.The protagonistNormally the protagonist is obvious. It's Batman, it's James Bond, it's Indiana Jones. If it's difficult to identify a protagonist then perhaps the story is about more than one person (say EastEnders, or Robert Altman's Short Cuts) but it will always be the person the audience cares about most.But already we encounter difficulties. "Care" is often translated as "like",

    which is why so

    many screenwriters are given the note (often

    by non-writing executives) "Can you make them nice?" Frank Cottrell Boyce, a graduate of Brookside

    and one of

    Britain's most successful screenwriters, puts it more forcibly than most: "Sympathy is like crack cocaine

    to industry

    execs. I've had at least one wonderful screenplay of mine

    maimed by a sympathy-skank. Yes, of course the audience has to relate to your characters, but they don't need to approve of them. If characters are going to do something bad, Hollywood wants you to build in an excuse note."We
    don't like Satan in Paradise Lost – we love him.
    And we love him because he's the perfect gleeful embodiment of evil. Niceness tends to kill characters. Much more interesting are the rough edges, the darkness – and we love these things because, though we may not want to admit it, they touch something deep inside us. If you play

    video games such as Grand Theft Auto or Call of Duty: Modern Warfare (and millions do), then you occupy literal avatars that do little but kill, maim,

    destroy, or sleep with the obstacles in your path.
    David Edgar justified his play about Nazi architect Albert Speer

    by saying: "The awful truth – and it is

    awful, in both senses of the word – is that the response most great drama asks of us is neither 'yes please' nor 'no thanks' but 'you, too?' Or, in the cold light of dawn, 'there but for the grace of God go I.'"The
    key to empathy, then, does not lie in manners or good behaviour. Nor does it lie,

    as is often claimed, in the understanding of motive. It's certainly true that if we know why characters do what they do, we will love them more. However, that's a symptom of empathy, not its root cause. It lies in its ability to access and bond with our unconscious.Why are so many fictional policeman and doctors mavericks? Laziness on the writers' behalf possibly, but can that really account for the widespread prevalence of one particular character trait? Why did so many find themselves drawn to Sarah Lund in The Killing? Like her pulp-fiction counterparts, she broke the rules, ignored her bosses and went behind their backs; like them she was told by her bosses: "You've got 24 hours or I'm taking you off the case." Why did she – and why do all mavericks – prove so

    popular? Largely because that's how many of us feel at times, too.
    When we watch Sarah Lund rejecting her bosses, we think, "I wish I could do that"; when we watch Miranda Hart's Chummy in Call the Midwife, we bleed for her clumsiness.
    There is something immensely attractive in living through a character who does obtain revenge, who is proved to have value or, like Lund, is finally proved right.

    The attraction of wish fulfilment,

    benevolent or masochistic, can't be underestimated – what else can explain the ubiquity of Cinderella or the current global dominance of the Marvel franchise? Isn't there a Peter Parker in most of us, longing to turn into Spider-Man? We may recoil at the idea of empathising with Adolf Hitler but, as Downfall attests, we can and do.The antagonistSo something happens to a central character that throws them off the beaten track and forces them into a world they've never seen. A beanstalk grows; a patient collapses, a murder is committed. All of these actions have consequences; which in turn provoke obstacles that are commonly dubbed forces of antagonism – the sum total of all the obstacles that obstruct a character in the pursuit of their desires.The detective and "monster" templates illustrate this well, but antagonism can manifest itself in many different ways, most interestingly when it lies within the protagonist.
    Cowardice, drunkenness, lack of self-esteem – all will serve as internal obstacles that prevent a character reaching fulfilment; all make the person more real.
    While antagonists can be external (James Bond), internal (The Diving Bell

    and the Butterfly) or both (Jaws), all have one thing in common, which Hitchcock summarised succinctly: "The more successful the villain, the more successful the picture."What
    do Bond and Blofeld,

    Sarah Connor and the Terminator, Sam Tyler and Gene Hunt (Life on Mars), Fiona and Frank Gallagher (Shameless) have in common? They're all opposites.
    "We're not so very different, you and I," says Karla to

    Smiley in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy. "We both spend our lives looking for the weaknesses in one and another's systems."As the Joker, displaying an uncharacteristic grasp of story structure, says to Batman in The Dark Knight, "You complete me." All forces of antagonism embody the qualities missing in their protagonist's lives.The desireIf a character doesn't want something, they're passive. Aaron Sorkin, writer of The West Wing put it succinctly: "Somebody's got to want something, something's got to be standing in their way of getting it. You do that and you'll have a scene."The
    Russian actor, director and theoretician Konstantin Stanislavski first articulated the idea that characters are motivated by desire. To find Nemo, to put out the Towering Inferno, to clear their name, to catch a thief, purpose must be bestowed and actively sought.
    Why do characters in EastEnders offer up the mantra, "It's all about family"? Because it gives them something to fight for; it gives them a goal – it brings them to life. "Tell me what you want," said Anton Chekhov, "and I will tell you what manner of man you are."Whether simple (kill the

    shark) or profound (return the key in Channel 4's The Promise), the underlying "grail quest" structure is ever present. Cops want to catch the killer, doctors want to heal their patient.

    In North by Northwest, everyone is simply chasing

    microfilm of an unspecified variety. Again, Hitchcock says it best: "[We] have a name in the studio, and we call it the 'MacGuffin'.
    It is the mechanical element that usually crops up in any story. In crook stories it is almost always the necklace and in spy stories it is most always the papers."When "something happens" to a hero at the beginning of a drama,

    that something, at some level, is a disruption to their perceived security.
    Duly alarmed, they seek to rectify their situation; their "want" is to find that security once again. They may often, however, choose to find that security in the wrong place. What a character thinks is

    good for them is often bad. This conflict is one of the fundamental tenets of structure, because it embodies the battle between external and internal desire.External and internal desireBlockbusters, with one or two exceptions, are two–dimensional.
    It's a world where desire is simple: the hero wants something - to kill Bill or find the secret of the Unicorn.
    In pursuit of that

    goal the multiplex hero doesn't change.The
    cynic might say that's because of the demands of the franchise – we want James Bond to be the same in every film.
    But Bond is the refined, simplified bastardisation of a deeper archetype. He is white bread: impurities removed, digestion eased; a product of the demand

    for the thrill of story, minus its more troubling and disturbing

    Bond just wants; he is an embodiment of pure desire. Three-dimensional characters, however, do change.When
    we first

    meet Thelma and Louise they are living in darkness, mortgage-holders in a conservative American society. In The Lives of Others, Hauptmann Wiesler is a Stasi agent, the product of a world where empathy doesn't exist. Here he can flourish – his power and steel are terrifying.Thelma,
    Louise and Wiesler are all flawed characters, and it is this concept of "flaw" that is

    critical in three-dimensional storytelling.
    Wiesler cannot care; the women are unknowingly repressed.Flaw or need isn't the same as want or desire. Wiesler wants to punish the dissident couple he has been sent to spy on; Thelma and Louise want to

    escape the police

    and get to Mexico. Both sets of characters go on a journey to recognise that what they want stands in direct opposition to what they need. Going to Mexico or imprisoning dissidents

    will not make them complete.The
    Russian formalist Vladimir Propp coined the beautiful term "lack" for what a

    protagonist is missing in the initial stages of any story, and it's  this lack that three-dimensional stories exploit.While

    it's possible for characters to get what they want and what they need (certainly that's what happens in Aliens or Star Wars), the true, more universal and powerful archetype occurs when the initial, ego-driven goal is abandoned for something more important, more nourishing, more essential. In Rocky, Cars, Saving Private Ryan, Little Miss Sunshine, Midnight Run and Tootsie, the heroes find a goal they weren't aware they were looking for.The inciting incidentAll stories have a premise – "What if?" This is almost always the inciting

    incident, or the "something" that happens.
    In The Long Good Friday Harold Shand is a gangster, planning to develop London's derelict docklands. He's invited the mafia to London to secure their investment when, without warning, one of his gang, charged with taking Harold's mother to church, is blown up in his car. That's the inciting incident – or part of it, because what the inciting incident must also do is awaken a desire. We go back to our story shape: a problem occurs; a solution is sought.
    Harold's solution is to track down the perpetrators and destroy them: "I'll have his carcasses dripping blood by midnight," he mutters.
    That's his "want", and that's the film.Hollywood tends to insist that inciting incidents are massive explosions. But as Fawlty Towers demonstrates, they may just be the arrival of a guest followed by an ever-growing complication AW Schlegel first

    codified the structural point in 1808, calling them "first determinations".
    In many ways, it remains the perfect term.The
    journeyIn Terminator 2,Arnold Schwarzenegger was turned from villain into hero, arguably helping position him as a family-friendly star, but the far more significant adjustment was the upgrade the character underwent.
    The new model Terminator, the T2, was programmed to learn from

    his surroundings and experience. Cunningly, his ability to undergo internal change was actually built

    into the script.Compare From Russia with Love with Casino Royale, and The Terminator with Terminator 2: the former in each case is a brilliantly slick product, but the latter has a far greater depth and resonance. As the heroes pursue their goals, their journeys in the latter films move us beyond visceral thrill to touch not just our senses but something deeper.
    In both sequels, the protagonists' superficial wants remain unsated; they're rejected in favour of the more profound unconscious hunger inside.
    The characters get what they need. Expecting one thing on our quest, we find ourselves confronted with another; traditional worldviews aren't reinforced, prejudices aren't reaffirmed; instead the protagonists' worldviews – and ours too – are realigned.The quest is an integral ingredient of all archetypal stories, internal or external, and, perhaps most rewardingly, both. Change of some kind is at the heart of this quest, and so too is choice, because finally the protagonist must choose how to change. Nowhere is this more clearly embodied than in the crisis.The crisisThe crisis is a kind of death: someone close to the hero dies (The Godfather), the heroes themselves appear to die (ET) but more commonly all hope passes away.
    Some US TV drama series refer to it as the "worst case," and

    in BBC continuing drama, "worst point" has become an almost ubiquitous term. Not for nothing; it's the point of maximum jeopardy in any script, the moment the viewer should be shouting "Oh no!" at the screen, the moment where it seems impossible for the hero to

    "get out of that". The crisis is also, in self-contained stories, almost always the cliffhanger before the last commercial break and the ending of every episode of EastEnders, of the 1960s Batman TV series and every American serial film of the 1940s from Superman to Flash Gordon.The
    crisis occurs when the hero's final dilemma is crystallised, the moment they are faced with the most important question of the story; just what kind of person are they?

    This choice is the final test of character, because it's the moment where the hero is forced to face up to their dramatic need or flaw.
    In the Pilgrim's Progress-type structure that underlies Star Wars, Luke's choice is between that of being a boy and a man; in Casablanca Rick has to confront and overcome his selfishness ("I stick my neck out for no man"), and in Aliens Ripley learns, by choosing to save Newt, that she can be a mother once again.
    In all you can see the cleverness of the structural design, where the external antagonists are the embodiments of what each protagonist

    fears most. To overcome that which lies without, they must overcome the chasm within.Hence the stench of death – every crisis is the protagonists'

    opportunity to kill off their old selves and live anew. Their
    choice is to deny change and return to their former selves, or confront their innermost fears, overcome them and be rewarded. When Gary sings, "Am I a man or a Muppet?" at his crisis point in 2011's The Muppets, he's articulating the quintessential dilemma all protagonists face at this crucial structural point. Being a "man" is the road less travelled, and it's the much harder choice.The
    climaxThe climax is the stage at which the protagonist finds release from their seemingly inescapable predicament. It's the final showdown with their antagonist, the battle in which the hero engages with their dramatic need and overcomes their flaw. Historically it is sometimes referred to as the "obligatory scene" (a term coined in the 19th century by French drama critic Francisque Sarcey).When Thelma and Louise shoot the rapist and decide to run from the law, there's one essential sequence that has to happen: they must do battle with the law. Once Elliot has adopted ET and saved him from the faceless hordes of government, he has to face the "villains" he's hidden him from.During
    each film we watch as Thelma, Louise and Elliot develop the skills they need to overcome their flaws; the two women need to believe in themselves and each other; Elliot needs to find the tenacity and selflessness within. And here, in the

    climax, they apply them. Both are classically structured films, where the flaws of the protagonists are embodied in the characterisation of the antagonists, so that in ET, when Elliot overcomes his external obstacle, his internal need is liberated, and when the women renounce society they become (we are led to believe) emancipated and whole.A climax can be subverted (the Coen brothers' No Country For Old Men kills its protagonist at the crisis point, but it's very much an exception) but the effect is akin to Bond running from Blofeld. Unless it's part of a wider schematic plan it feels wrong – the writer has set up something and then refused to pay it off.The inciting incident provokes the question "What will happen?", and the climax (or obligatory act) declares, "this". It is the peak of the drama. Protagonist faces antagonist – all come together to fight it out and be resolved.The resolutionThe word "denouement" is a derivation of dénouer, meaning "to untie", and that's what it is – the knots of plot are undone and complications unravelled. But it is also a tying up of loose ends. In a classically structured work there must be a payoff for every set-up, no strand

    left forgotten.Traditionally, stories always ended happily ever

    after, with all action resolved.
    Either the tragic hero died or the romantic couple got married. As the journalist and author Christopher Booker has observed, a number of significant changes took place as a result of the industrial revolution in the way we tell stories. "Open endings" have become more commonplace, partly to add an air of uncertainty and partly because, in a godless universe, death doesn't mean what it once did.
    As Shakespearean scholar Jan Kott noted: "Ancient tragedy is loss of life, modern tragedy is loss of purpose." Characters nowadays are just as likely to drift into meaningless oblivion as to die (The Godfather: Part II); just as likely not to marry as to find themselves at the altar

    (Four Weddings and a Funeral).
    Archetypal endings can also be twisted to great effect. The Wire found an extremely

    clever way of subverting the normal character arc, by brutally cutting it off at an arbitrary point. The death of Omar

    Little at the hands of a complete stranger works precisely because it's so narratively wrong; it undercuts the classic hero's journey by employing all its conventions up to the point of

    sudden, tawdry and unexpected death. In effect, saying this is a world where such codes don't operate, such subversion also has the added bonus of telling us just how the cruel and godless world of Baltimore drug-dealing really works.Putting
    it all togetherThese building blocks are the primary colours of storytelling. To a greater or lesser extent they either occur in all stories, or else their absence (the missing bit of Omar's arc in The Wire; the early death of

    the hero in No Country for Old Men) has an implied narrative effect. In archetypal form these are the elements that come together to shape the skeleton of almost every story we see, read or hear. If
    you put them all together, that skeleton structure looks like this:Once upon a time a young friendless boy called Elliot discovered an alien in his backyard. Realising that unless he helped the creature home it would die, he took it on himself to outwit the authorities, win over sceptics and in a race

    against time, in a true act of courage, set his friend free.It
    sounds very simplistic, and in some senses it is, but like the alphabet or the notes on a musical stave, it is an endlessly adaptable form.
    Just how adaptable starts to become clear when we see how it lends itself to conveying a tragic tale.TragedyWhen
    we first meet Michael Corleone in The Godfather he's in an army uniform.
    Every inch the war hero, he explains the nefarious deeds of his father and his brothers to his fiancee, before mollifying her: "That's my family, Kay, that's not me."
    Macbeth bears an uncanny

    resemblance. As

    he emerges from the mists of

    battle, Duncan cannot help but be impressed: "So well thy words become thee, as thy wounds: They smack of honour both."Michael Corleone and Macbeth are both flawed, but their faults are not what are traditionally described as tragic flaws or blind spots.
    They are, instead, good qualities: selflessness and bravery, and it is this that provides the key to how tragic story shape really works.Tragedies follow exactly the same principles as Jaws or ET but in reverse.
    In tragedy a character's flaw is what conventional society might term normal or

    good – a goodness that characters overturn to become evil in their own way. Historically, critics have focused on the Aristotelian definition of a fatal malignant flaw to describe tragic heroes, but it is just as instructive, I would argue, to chart how their goodness rots. It's a common trope of liberal American movies (in

    both The Good Shepherd and The Ides of March idealistic patriots find

    their morals slowly eaten away) but

    it's equally apparent in Hilary Mantel's Wolf Hall, where Thomas Cromwell undergoes a similar corruption.
    It is Cromwell's goodness that corrodes him, his loyalty to Cardinal Newman that fixes him on the same tragic trajectory as both Macbeth and Michael Corleone. Furthermore, it's a goodness that is corroded according to an absolutely archetypal pattern. From Line of Duty to Moby-Dick, Dr Faustus to Lolita ("good" is a relative concept), there's a clear pathway the characters follow as, in pursuit of their goal, their moral centre collapses. The initial goals can be good (The Godfather or Line of Duty), seemingly innocuous (Carmen, Dr Faustus), but the end-result is the same: the characters are consumed by overwhelming egotistical desire.It seems impossible to understand how, with only eight notes in an octave, we don't simply run out of music.
    But just as tones give rise to semi-tones and time signatures, tempo and style alter content, so we start to see that a simple

    pattern contains within it the possibility of endless permutations. Feed in a different kind of flaw; reward or punish the characters in a variety of ways; and you create a different kind of story.What's more fascinating perhaps is just why the underlying pattern exists, and why we reproduce it whether we've studied narrative or not. Every act of perception is an attempt to lasso the outside world and render it into meaning.
    Elliot's journey to maturity, just like the Terminator's journey to human understanding, are interpretations of that basic act.
    Both metaphorically (and literally in the case of ET)

    every story can therefore be seen as a journey into the woods to find the secret that lies outside the self.
    It's in that journey that narrative shape is forged.• Into the Woods: A Five Act Journey into Story by John Yorke is published by Particular Books on 4 April (£16.99) © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds "Allowing children to leave school at that age,

    without good levels of literacy and numeracy, would trap them in low-paid jobs for the rest of their lives," he tells the Daily

    Mail. Read | Permalink | Email this | Comments BEIRUT - Syrian police sealed off a southern city Saturday after security forces killed at least five protesters there in the first sign that the Arab world's pro-democracy

    push is seeping into one of the region's most repressive places.
    In these intertwined essays, Cynthia Zarin reflects on love, work and the surprises of time’s passing.
    At last, the well is dead.
    BP's Macondo oil well is physically incapable of leaking another drop, according to the head of the U.S.
    government's response effort. Retired Coast Guard Adm.
    Thad W. Allen said Friday that this discovery was made after a "relief well" finally broke through into the...
    Gov. Martin O'Malley (D) announced this week that he has secured more than $1 million in federal homeland security grant funds for Southern
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    First Person Singular: Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano
    Although many google sniper Washington's close-in suburbs google sniper review been paved over and built up into modern "edge cities," Del Ray retains some of the

    feel of a small Southern town. Camouflage more effective when traveling in a groupWhen it comes to improving worker morale, Janet Napolitano may wonder what she's gotten herself into. President Obama on Friday will propose diverting money from oil and gas leases on federal lands to finance research on replacing hydrocarbons in cars and trucks. • Parisse was banned for insulting referee in league game• Italy No8 denied abuse and appealed against decisionThe Italy captain Sergio Parisse will be available for his

    country's Six Nations encounter against England at Twickenham

    on Sunday.Italy's team manager Luigi Troiani has confirmed that Parisse's suspension for insulting the referee in a French league game last month had been reduced to 20 days on appeal. And that means he can return to action this

    weekend after missing Italy's 26-9 home loss against Wales 11 days ago.Parisse, 29, was banned for 40 days – 10 days of which were suspended – after being sent off in a Top 14 fixture between his

    club Stade Français and Bordeaux Bègles. His initial punishment meant he was sidelined until 18 March, with the Leicester prop Martin Castrogiovanni taking over as captain against Wales.But
    the Azzurri will now have the 93 times-capped No8 Parisse back in their ranks to face England, and then Ireland in Rome six days later."We
    learn with satisfaction the news that the disqualification of Sergio Parisse was reduced to 20 days," Troiani said. "Therefore, the player will be available for the next two days of Six Nations. Sergio is an important element for this group, and we could not be happier to be able to make [him] available to the [head coach] Jacques Brunel for matches against England and Ireland."Parisse, whose appeal was heard on Wednesday, will now link up with the Italian squad in Rome. He was suspended by French league chiefs following the incident with the referee Laurent Cardona, although Parisse vehemently denied he had insulted the official.His availability is a huge boost for Brunel as Italy look to recover from the Wales defeat, when they failed to score a try and

    were destroyed in the scrums. Although they started their Six Nations campaign by recording a memorable victory over France, the Azzurri then succumbed 34-10 to Scotland before Wales were similarly comprehensive winners in Rome.Italy
    are currently fifth in the Six Nations table, two points above France, and they will head to Twickenham as rank outsiders against an unbeaten England team chasing a first grand slam since 2003.Paddy
    Jackson is in line to start for Ireland in Saturday's clash with France following a fitness test on Thursday. The fly-half had been suffering from a hamstring strain picked up in training but came through a kicking routine at the Aviva Stadium.Italy
    rugby union teamSix Nations 2013Six NationsRugby
    © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds In 2012, Google may have received 500 National Security Letters, requests from the FBI for identifying data -- such as name or address -- about one or For the estimated 12 million Americans with food allergies, eating can be quite an adventure.
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    © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.
    All rights reserved.
    | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds Following the death of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, scores of mourners took to the streets of Caracas to mourn his death.
    The first time I

    went to Afghanistan, a woman I met told me about her grandfather, who had been dragged from her side and

    arrested in Kabul during the time of communist

    He reappeared two years later, his nails ripped from his fingers, a hole burned through


    Broken but brave, he m... Click here to have the Fiver sent to your inbox every weekday at 5pm, or if your usual copy has stopped arrivingIT

    COULD HAVE BEEN WORSEThere are some people who say Big Cup has ruined football, stripping the sport of its soul and turning it into an uncompetitive chore in which only the richest clubs can dream

    of glory.
    Well just you try telling that to Leonardo, sporting director of Beckham Saint-Germain, who was so swept up by the emotion of spending a morning in Nyon that he proposed live on air to his girlfriend, Anna Billò, straight after the draw for the last eight. "Do you want to marry me?" he asked the bewildered Sky Italia presenter. "You have to answer me now. I'm waiting for your answer.
    It's not that difficult." At first Billò was flustered, telling the Brazilian smoothball that they'd talk about

    it at home but after much persistence, eventually she seemed to relent. "OK," she said.
    Ah, the romance of Big Cup is alive and well!It was just a shame that Leonardo didn't conduct every interview in this manner, because next up was a cosy chat with Sky Sports News's Bryan Swanson about the draw, which pitched BSG into a daunting tie with Barcelona in a repeat of the 1997 Tin Pot Winners' Pot final.
    Remember that one, Uefa? Unfortunately Zlatan Ibrahimovic is suspended for

    the first leg and won't be around for another reunion with his

    former club, although that's not the main news.
    The main news is

    that David Beckham is in the quarter-finals of Big Cup.
    Have that, Europe, with your pitying glances and attempts to make us feel

    included by letting Steve McManaman do the draw and England's Brave Wembley Stadium host the final. Elsewhere Borussia Dortmund and Real Madrid were given favourable

    draws with Málaga and Galatasaray, respectively, while the tie of the round sees Bayern Munich and Juventus lock horns.Unlike in previous years, Uefa deigned not to get the draw for the semi-finals out of the way too, presumably because the traditional seven-course banquet was about to start.
    Anyway they had to get the real quiz, the draw for Big Vase quarter-finals, out of the way and

    here was

    where the Premier League really came into its own. Sure, the

    day started badly but it ended on a high, with Chelsea off to Russia to play Rubin Kazan, Gareth Bale and The Hot Spurs up against FC Basel/Basle/Barrrrrl in the Christian Gross derby and Newcastle handed a tricky tie against Benfica.After a week in which the Premier League was apparently plunged into crisis, it was perplexing to see three English sides going great guns in Big Vase, a tournament many have declared provides real proof about a league's strength. As ever, the Fiver doesn't know what to think.QUOTE
    OF THE DAY"It used to be you could get your coaching licence in England from the supermarket with your beans and bacon.
    Now you have to get your licence and do your courses, so I don't see that happening" – Fulham boss Martin Jol, who clearly

    shopped in places different to the Fiver, says Danny Murphy isn't about to take a coaching job

    at the club.FIVER LETTERS"Following Michael Thomas's letter describing all of the names of lamps used to grow weed (yesterday's Fiver letters), I have but one question.
    Could you please forward me Michael's email address? Asking for a friend" – Todd Van Allen (and others)."If Michael would be so kind as to provide us with an address to which we can send him a prize, we'd be much obliged" – P Lod."Does Michael's letter indicate that the seizure of grow lights meant Notts County were able to say

    they were 'up for grabs now'?" – Sean Joyce."Alan

    Pardew's quote saying Spurs are 'in it to win it' (yesterday's Fiver), conjured up a fitting metaphor for English clubs in European competitions. The competitions being the National Lottery's 'In It To Win It'.
    Both have tanned hosts

    (Dale Winton and Michel Platini) in a game of pre-selected contestants. You can put a lot of money into

    it but can be sent to the red area and walk away with nothing – à la Man City this year. You get a chance of a reprieve in the red area – à la Chelsea and Big Vase this year. You also get someone appearing in the final who had no right to be

    there, did not contribute for the majority of the show, got lucky and scooped the lot – à la Chelsea last year. Arsenal got a fiendishly tough question like the age of a celebrity where all three answers are expressed in minutes with one minute separating them, while Manchester United's question had the right answer removed from the options halfway through" – Dan Hand.• Send your letters to
    Also, if you've nothing better to do you can also tweet the Fiver. And to placate certain readers, the Fiver awards prizeless Fiver letter o' the day to: Sean Joyce.JOIN GUARDIAN SOULMATESWe keep trying to point out the utter futility of advertising an online dating service "for interesting people" in the Fiver to the naive folk who run Guardian Soulmates, but they still aren't having any of it. So here you go – sign up here to view profiles of the kind of erudite,

    sociable and friendly romantics who would never dream of going out with you.BITS
    AND BOBSLord Ferg says former former England defender Rio Ferdinand may remain former England

    defender Rio Ferdinand for a while yet. "I was as surprised as anyone when I heard [Ferdinand had been called up to the England squad]," puced Ferg.

    need to speak to the [United] doctor because we prepare Rio Ferdinand in a certain way and there

    are certain treatments he has to go through."Newcastle's Hatem Ben Arfa could miss the rest of the season if he has surgery on hamstring twang. "[Preparing for next season] is the priority

    for him now because he's been a huge miss for us," sobbed Alan Pardew.
    "He gives us that X-factor," added Pardew as Ben Arfa belted out a so-so version of I'd Do Anything For Love (But I Won't Do That).Arsène
    Wenger says Thomas Vermaelen and Wojciech Szczesny are not guaranteed starting places after missing the Big Cup tie against Bayern Munich.
    "You have to face it like that, the last game decides the next one," he said. "All the players are in the same position." That position usually being 25 yards away from the man they're supposed to be marking.And Bayern Munich president Uli Hoeness has taken a pop at the club's former coach Louis van Gaal. "His problem is that Louis is not God, but the father of God," theologised Hoeness.
    "Before the world existed, Louis was already there."GUARDIAN
    MASTERCLASSESThere are still places available for the next of Big Paper/Website's 'How to be a football journalist' masterclasses on 6 April. If you're interested, you can sign up here.RECOMMENDED
    VIEWINGHitting the post with an open goal at your mercy could be considered unfortunate.
    Doing it

    twice, on the other hand

    …STILL WANT MORE?"Never before have we seen them pull off something like this, not since Richard Keys went for a wax." It's AC Jimbo's European paper round-up video.Lionel
    Messi's 44-second, tear-stained appearance, American Samoa keeper Nicky Salapu's 13-0 shellacking and Chris Iwelumo's two-yard disaster all feature in this week's Joy of Six on international debuts.Disappointingly,
    Michael Cox's tie-by-tie breakdown does not involve him shredding his neckwear while howling at the moon but is an analysis of the Big Cup quarter-final fixtures instead.How to get

    the best out of

    Fernando Torres? Bloody his nose, writes

    David Hytner in one of the 10 things to look out for in the Premier League this weekend.And, like a zealous truant officer, David Lacey is doing the rounds of English clubs and forcing them back into school to learn to play in Europe again.SIGN UP TO THE FIVERWant your

    very own copy of our free tea-timely(ish) email sent direct to your inbox? Has your regular copy stopped arriving? Click here to sign up.WARNING:

    2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.
    All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds The University of Sheffield in Britain has cataloged baseball statues in the United States in Canada and found that they are a relatively recent trend for the sport. A romance that began with cymbals — well, one,
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    Follow live penny stock egghead as Venezuela mourns and google sniper world reacts to the death of Hugo ChávezHaroon SiddiqueTom McCarthy SEOUL - One year after being released from North Korea, Robert Park still cannot pull his mind away from the country where he spent 43 days.Alcohol,
    nicotine and cocaine are a few of the substances known to be addictive.
    Now some scientists wonder whether food should be added to the list.
    BISHKEK, Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan's

    president says her Central Asian nation plans to host a U.S.-funded,
    anti-terrorism training center.
    The School Board in Giles County, Va., voted this week to remove

    the Ten Commandments from the walls of its public schools after a pair of civil liberty groups announced they were preparing to sue the district. Bucks readers discuss their

    experience with a new rule that requires their brokerage firms to report to the I.R.S.
    the price they paid for certain taxable investments. President Obama used a congratulatory call with China’s new president to discuss the loss of American intellectual property from cyberattacks. Veris Consulting of Reston named Ned Barnes, formerly a director with LECG, managing director in its forensic accounting practice group and John Gillespie managing director in its outsourced accounting and financial management practice
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    Living aboard a 100-foot boat, exploring a mostly uninhabited region spread out over 250 miles in the Andaman Sea.The field of IT is notorious for being persistently male-dominated, but that doesn't mean women still suffer from a gender gap when it comes to pay. KABUL - U.S.
    Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano, on a two-day visit here, said Saturday that her department plans to significantly bolster its activities in Afghanistan over the coming year, adding as many as

    54 agents to the current contingent of 25. SANAA, YEMEN - Security forces used water cannons, tear gas and live ammunition to quell anti-government activists in the capital early Saturday, witnesses said, but were forced to retreat after hours-long clashes in which at least two people were reportedly killed and hundreds were injured. Time Warner Cable is discovering that there is

    more to a name change

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    Wednesday, July 18th, 2012
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    any horse racing tricks for another day
    Many people would agree that they have attempted betting at horse racing some point or other. horse racing tips you can benefit from However, the majority being amateur in this area are likely to loose the bet more commonly rather than winning it. This mainly occurs due to insufficient information regarding the details of horse racing. If you happen to think about generating extra money from horse betting, you may consider studying free horse racing suggestions.Here are a few free horse racing hints that is worth considering, while you are making the choice for your horse regarding betting at horse racing: First things comes first, so before doing any sort of decisions it is best to check out horse racing forms. Horse racing tracks,newsstands, racing papers often have them all cost free. In our times the best way to find this forms is simply to go on the net. The best place to start is always to go through the coaches as well as the jockeys. Earlier horse functionality
    is another big signal of whether or not horse actually worth betting on or not. However in most cases previous run performance do not aid a lot. Therefore a cost-free horse racing tips is the fact horse racing choices on instructor and jockey can be achieved very easily, to help you in removing a good number of horses from your handicapping process at the very first step. Sticking with free horse racing strategies is to consider looking at recently available form. Position at what horse will complete its race might be more or less predicted via browsing previous pair races of the same horse. Average speed and finishing position from past race are free and available info that you can take into account. The speed statistics can be found in the racing form, where they're found listed. It illustrates how the horse has performed in his or her past race on targeted track. You may consider the speed numbers from the past three races of a horse and evaluate all those figures against the rest of the field. This may provide you an upright idea of how the race shapes up.
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